Purpose: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but accurate diagnosis and its clinical consequences have been a problem. Maxillofacial trauma does have an association with TBI. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) has been developed to evaluate neuronal damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of NSE serum levels to detect mild brain injury of patients with sustained maxillofacial fractures during motor vehicle accidents. Methods: Blood samples were drawn from 40 healthy people (control group) and 48 trauma patients who had sustained isolated maxillofacial fractures and mild brain injury in motor vehicle accidents. Brain injuries were graded by Glasgow Coma Scale. In the trauma group, correlations between the NSE serum value and different facial fracture sites were also assessed. Results: The NSE serum level (mean ± SD, ng/ml) in the 48 patients with maxillofacial fractures and mild TBI was 13.12 ± 9.68, significantly higher than that measured in the healthy control group (7.72 ± 1.82, p < 0.001). The mean NSE serum level (ng/ml) in the lower part of the facial skeleton (15.44 with SD 15.34) was higher than that in the upper facial part (12.42 with SD 7.68); and the mean NSE level (ng/ml) in the middle-and lower part (11.97 with SD 5.63) was higher than in the middle part (7.88 with SD 2.64). Conclusion: An increase in NSE serum levels can be observed in patients sustained maxillofacial fractures and mild brain injury.