CD8+ T cells have the potential to attack and eradicate cancer cells. The efficacy of therapeutic vaccines against cancer, however, lacks defined immune correlates of tumor eradication after (therapeutic) vaccination based on features of Ag-specific T cell responses. In this study, we examined CD8+ T cell responses elicited by various peptide and TLR agonist-based vaccine formulations in nontumor settings and show that the formation of CD62L-KLRG1+ effector-memory CD8+ T cells producing the effector cytokines IFN-γ and TNF predicts the degree of therapeutic efficacy of these vaccines against established s.c. tumors. Thus, characteristics of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses instill a predictive determinant for the efficacy of vaccines during tumor therapy. Copyright © 2012 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.