The objective of this study is to experimentally determine the physical and elastic properties of bamboo and set the anisotropic factor along the wall thickness of the bamboo. The physical properties were determined following the requirements of the Brazilian standard. The elastic modulus was determined by non-destructive testing using the impulse excitation method. The density in the shell region is 40% larger than the inner portion. The density variation in the wall thickness of the bamboo is not linear, having a more pronounced nonlinearity in the shell region. The results of the ANOVA table indicate that shrinkage factors in bamboo wall thickness can be considered statistically the same, i.e., they do not vary with the wall thickness of the bamboo. The anisotropic factor in the intermediate and inner region can be considered statistically equal, 1.8. As for the factor measured in the region close to the bark, 2.03, it cannot be considered equal to the other regions. There is a variation of the modulus of elasticity, between the interior and the bamboo bark, of 279%.