Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery impairs microcirculatory perfusion and is paralleled by vascular leakage. The endothelial angiopoietin/Tie2 system controls microvascular leakage. This study investigated whether targeting Tie2 with the angiopoietin-1 mimetic vasculotide reduces vascular leakage and preserves microcirculatory perfusion in a rat CPB model. Methods: Rats were subjected to 75 min of CPB after treatment with vasculotide or phosphate buffered solution as control or underwent a sham procedure. Microcirculatory perfusion and leakage were assessed with intravital microscopy (n=10 per group) and Evans blue dye extravasation (n=13 per group), respectively. Angiopoietin-1, -2, and Tie2 protein and gene expression were determined in plasma, kidney, and lung. Results: CPB immediately impaired microcirculatory perfusion [5 (4–8) vs 10 (7–12) vessels per recording, P=0.002] in untreated CPB rats compared with sham, which persisted after weaning from CPB. CPB increased circulating angiopoeietin-1, -2, and soluble Tie2 concentrations and reduced Tie2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in kidney and lung. Moreover, CPB increased Evans blue dye leakage in kidney [12 (8–25) vs 7 (1–12) μg g−1, P=0.04] and lung [and 23 (13–60) vs 6 (4–16) μg g−1, P=0.001] compared with sham. Vasculotide treatment preserved microcirculatory perfusion during and after CPB. Moreover, vasculotide treatment reduced Evans blue dye extravasation in lung compared with CPB control [18 (6–28) μg g−1 vs 23 (13–60) μg g−1, P=0.04], but not in kidney [10 (3–23) vs 12 (8–25) μg g−1, P=0.38]. Vasculotide did not affect circulating or mRNA expression of angiopoietin-1, -2, and Tie2 concentrations compared with untreated CPB controls. Conclusions: Treatment with the angiopoietin-1 mimetic vasculotide reduced pulmonary vascular leakage and preserved microcirculatory perfusion during CPB in a rat model.