The Summary Low vitamin D status is associated with low bone mass which, in turn, is an important predictor of fracture. However, data on this relationship in non-Caucasian populations are scarce. This review shows such an association in the Chinese population in five of the 11 included studies. Introduction In the elderly population, the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentration is often inadequate. This may cause a lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is an important predictor of fracture. It is estimated that by 2050 more than half of all hip fractures worldwide will occur in Asia. However, data on the relationship between vitamin D status and BMD in a non-Caucasian population are scarce. Therefore, this study reviews the literature on the relationship between serum 25(OH) D and BMD in the Chinese population. Methods A search was made in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library (up to December 2014) to identify relevant studies using the terms vitamin D status, bone mineral density, and Chinese. Results Of the 293 studies identified, 11 fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analyzed. Mean serum 25(OH) D concentrations ranged from 29-82 nmol/L. In 5 of the 11 studies, an association was found between vitamin D status and BMD in the Chinese population. Conclusion The evidence for a relationship between the serum 25(OH) D concentration and BMD in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population living in Asia appears to be limited and inconsistent.