Background: Vitamin D plays a critical role in skeletal development and maintenance, thus sufficiency is an important goal for public health programs. Given the absence of foods fortified in vitamin D in Armenia, we hypothesized that vitamin D insufficiency would be widespread. Methods: We conducted a random modified cluster model survey of vitamin D status of women in the country. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in dried blood spot samples and utilized a questionnaire to assess lifestyle factors. Results: In summer, we sampled 1206 participants from 40 communities in Armenia. Mean 25-OH D level among women aged 18–24 was 20 ± 8 ng/mL; aged 25–64 was 21 ± 7 ng/mL; and >65 was 18 ± 8 ng/mL. The country-wide mean of the entire female population was 20 ± 8 ng/mL. A majority (>54%) had 25-OH D levels <20 ng/mL with nearly 13% having 25-OH D levels <12 ng/mL. Participants who reported calcium, vitamin D, or multivitamin supplementation had higher levels of 25-OH D (p values 0.004, 0.0002, and 0.03 respectively) as did pre- vs. postmenopausal women (p = 0.01), pregnant vs. nonpregnant women (p = <0.0001), and women who had experienced a sunburn in the past year (p = 0.004). Conclusion: In Armenia, there is a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. This information provides data that can be used to inform public health directives to address this pervasive threat to optimal health.