Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of developing vascular calcifications, as well as bone dynamics impairment, leading to a poor quality of life and increased mortality. Certain vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDPs) act mainly as calcification inhibitors, but their involvement in the onset and progression of CKD are not completely elucidated. This review is an update of the current state of knowledge about the relationship between CKD and four extrahepatic VKDPs: matrix Gla protein, osteocalcin, growth-arrest specific protein 6 and Gla-rich protein. Based on published literature in the last ten years, the purpose of this review is to address fundamental aspects about the link between CKD and circulating VKDPs levels as well as to raise new topics about how the interplay between molecular weight and charge could influence the modifications of circulating VKDPs at the glomerular level, or whether distinct renal etiologies have effect on VKDPs. This review is the output of a systematic literature search and may open future research avenues in this niche domain.