Objective The rate of cesareans has increased worldwide. Therefore, an increasing number of women has to decide how to deliver in a subsequent pregnancy. Individualized information on risks and success chances is helpful. This study investigates the effect of a preterm cesarean on success of subsequent term trial of labor. Study Design Ten-year Dutch cohort (2000-2009) of women with one previous cesarean and a subsequent term trial of labor. Subgroups were made based on gestational age at first cesarean delivery (25-28, 28-30, 30-32 and 32-34 weeks) and stratified based the way in which second delivery started. Rates of vaginal deliveries, maternal, and neonatal outcomes were compared with women who had a first-term cesarean (37-43 weeks). Results Four thousand three-hundred forty-two women delivered by preterm cesarean in the first pregnancy. These women had high rates of successful trial of labor, both after spontaneous onset (86.2-96.2%) and induction (72.8-75.4%). Rates of adverse outcomes were low and similar compared with women with a previous term cesarean. Conclusion In this 10-year nationwide cohort, women with a preterm first cesarean who opted for trial of labor in a subsequent pregnancy had high rates of successful trial of labor.