Vitamin D status and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency have been addressed in many studies covering all continents. Vitamin D deficiency, when serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is lower than 25. nmol/L, occurs in risk groups all over the world, mainly in the Middle East, China, Mongolia, and India. Risk groups for poor vitamin D status are children especially those with low birth weight, adolescents, pregnant women, older persons, and non-Western immigrants. A vitamin D status can be considered adequate (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D >50. nmol/L) in less than 50% of the world population at least in winter. Prevention requires moderate sunlight exposure, consumption of fish, fortification of foods, and the use of vitamin D supplements.
|Name||Vitamin D: Fourth Edition|